Sx chat wih no sinin

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Freedom of thijught Avas repressed in ^e(ai]ar studies, as in religion. Many .-iiuilar fxaniplc- \\\ lie f^unid in Ln ihnirc franndsv an Mui/iii-ch/e. Tlie maritime entca* ])rise of these thi'ee re[)iil)lics (h'veloped the Aigoiir. and intelligence of their citizens, and encouraged their lo\'e of liberty. h)oth were less given to culture than tlicir m()r(^ democratic contemporaries. Mil""- Milan claimed great antiquity among Italian cities. the cork-tre(\ the mulberry, and the cvjiri'ss ; the heights of Fiesole, the winding Arno, the rich vege- tation of its flowery vale, the hill of San Minialo, and the sharp ridges of C'ai Tara, formed a ])i'nuiv which could not fail to iiis})ire them with a love of nature, and a creative sense of the l)eautiful. i'''"'"p"f'^ And truly, if Venice may be compared yith Si)arta, witii Florence may fitly bear com])arison with the most emi- nent of the Greek republics. Ain.ii- These measures displayed the I'csolution of the re- estabii. How great must have been their wealth of able citizens. meml KTs, and one of tlie com]nnn(\ composed of 125 \-) 1. by the genius and highej' (Mih ix'ation of their own I'ace. If thev ^'"""' had loyally associated themselves with their fellow- ciiizens. fiction, and disorders, the citizens were ready to the hand^ of I heir .v/'v/y-'/w. 'riie\' prel'erred [)ronipl juslici' to anai'chv : but their eon- was generally abnsed ; and the men Ashoin lliey irnsled, if they re|)res-ed tnnuills, were, loo ot'ien. '1\ tljese strifes and factions must be added the nevei-endin Lf feuds betwcciu I'ival families, in Av Jiich tlie liapless citizens became embroiled. cruelty, craft, treachery, and unrelenting vengeance, and Avere rarely redeemed by any act of c Jiivah'v or nobleness. In its past hisioj T, ;uid in its present political life, we may find illustrati(^n"/(;_)'■.? Every hi- quirv and speculation Avas cinamrscribed by her tenets and tradilious. di V,„rzi sent forth her armies against rival Itali m cities, and lier fleets from the Adriatic to Syrii and Egypt, ;^]le made conquests in Istria and Dalmati'i.- and on tlie eastern sliores of the Adriatic, ."^iie contended wiili Geiuja and Eis;i i V)r llie (anpire of the seas. degenerated into \in- dicti\e jealousies and disastrous wars. In ]().")2, lie was obliij-f^d lo consulr a council of illustrious citizens, chosen bv him- s.'lf. the I'o^^''-', ten ..'..(■t-d aiiiiually 1a tile Great Couiicil, and .-ix by the Si-'-noria. 29.'5 ros(^liitioii : viixorous in action : ])riiirely in its ambition (Hap. Both were close aristocracies : both were remarkable for their tenacity of ])urpose, their secresy, and the long duration of their power. They made terms with their new- ruler : l)ut in the crafty and resolute churchman they found a tyrant. The pirr[)le slo})es of the Apennines, clothed with the ches Tnut. Its VII spirited and enlightened citizens aspired to raise their fau- city to the honours of an Itahan Athens. For the maiiiteiiance of the public peace tlui citizens were divided into t Avenly armed companies, of two hundred : and were ])laced vmder the orders of the li'oidalonier, who, like the priors, was elected for two months, and became tlie chief of the siii'uoria. udied WAV in ]•' ranee or Germany, and had improved upon the tactics they liad leai'ued. iiii\"t'lli a]i]ic;u'\-ervwlua'e tlie turbulc Mice of the n()l)les was the Turimicnc'e aiul .■iiiihi- chiet' (^ause of the fall of tlu^ Italian rei)ul)hcs. At the same lime, their victorious leaders, commandinir at once an army and a ])ohtical faction, naturally exer- cised a sway, incompatible with po])ular freedom. popes, and iiobles, alike conspired against Italian freedom. It liad long been tlic rule for led(-r;i] (hicgalcs to vcie in the Diet, iiot a; ructic»us : thc A' A\'ere canional ambassador- ra/ji'-r dian repi'esenlatiws.- jjy tile fetf'ral coustituiion oi' 184S. fundamental ])riuciple of the Swiss confederation ; ;md il satisfies at once tlie democratic tradition^ of tlie people, and the natural jealou^ie- of the several canton-. It has ]:)resented examples of tlie purest democracy, of aristocratic encroachments, of po])nlar agitation, of ancient franchises recovered, and of repub- lican institutions restored and consolidated. Animals ' j Oiucn's Coniparati Ne .\natomy and I'h.ysiology . For exam])le, in default of a more extended \-ocal)ulary, it is often spoken of as a re\olutionary ibrce, op])osed to existing institutions, if not to law aiid order; and in view of many popuhu" movements al)road, such a term can scarcely be misa[)- phed. Its industry, ingenuity and couunercial enterprise were constantly increasing tlie wealth and cultivation of its citizens: and of these tlie ibremosi naturallv aspirt^d to go\'ern. Bnt it is also used hi some I her senses, which if not so accurate, have been sanc- tioned by conventional use. Learning being juirsucd with greater success, in Geneva, than in any part of Switzei'land, that city became the resort of men of science and k/tters ; and its society was re- markable for its culture. The Duke ui S;i\()v lia\ing enci'oached u])on the jui'i^diclion oi" liie bishop, and llic liberties of the people, his ollice of \i(li)nie \':i-~ abolished, and in all civil alfair^ the city \a. The nominal allegiance of IJie confedei'ation to the German em[)erors was not finally renounced until 1G4S, al'ter • As at Lucenic, wlit'ic t! croticlnnenls of a small ruling class — known as the secret families — bv ^vllom the whole po^ver of the Stale ' ^'lllli^•ll:ill, I[i- niuounted to aljmit sixtv. dixided into u Teat and .-^inall l'aiuilii'.~, bulonuvd to the same j^a U'ieian class. Soleure, and Lucerne it overcame all 0])|)ositioin and maialained its ])Ower until the French la'vohitioii brought changes over the whole confederation.^ (if-neva. 'Ihey were eariie-t in their patriotism ; and ' .1;,;,. eenth century the bishop, and the Duke of Savoy, lu'rc(Hlarv vidoine,'' were the ostensible ru K'i's of Gcncxa : but its institutions were rejiul'lican ; and the tour svndics, elected by the citizens, every six niontlis, exercised the real govermneiil of the city. ^ _ ' - wealth, and i'rom intercourse with the peo})le of other lands, the gn-at liody of the Swis ■'■•'^i""^ ]kleaiiwliile, tlie relations of Swilzerland ^ith foreign powers v;ere (K'stiiiecl to exercise a considei"able inllu- cucc upon its constitution and go\"ernment. Fribourg liad l)een no less ex])Osed to the en- I'l-iinairj,-. There were discontents; and in 1781 an insi HTcction was provoked against the oligarcliy : but that body was strong and resolute ; and by the aid oi' Berne. Tlu/x" ^vere not to be teni])led b\- ihcoi'iesol' a model rejitiblic : thev had no conceplion of "the rights of man : " but thex' gloried in their own ancient hberiies ; and 1 hey resented foreign dictation. The new eonstit ULtion was now forced upon the ])('0[)le ; and Geneva was amiexed to France. ^[ean while, the French were, by no means, con- Fn-nch witli the empty honour of founding a model "^'i"""-"''""" republic : but as an indemnity for their services, in the cause of liberty, seized the treasures of Berne, Ziirich, Friljourg and ^ok.'ure, and ]i'\ied heavy contributions upon the inhabitants.' A constitution forced upon them bv Ibi'cign arms was not likely to bring content- ment to tlie Swiss, 'hhere was nuicli in its unitv and ovrrrhnnv centrahsaiion to connneiul it : l)u.t U tound no tavour. i the (h'lnocratic pai'ty of tlie ]''j'encli sc]iool : it was a badge of national scrxitude ; and it was upheld bv a cosl K' arm\', by intolerable exactions, and bv liaughtvand insolent domination.- I)issensions, I'emon- slran brief existence ; and wdien the countr\- became the battle-lield of l''reiicli and it'.'S-! until the whok' counti'v ^\'as reduced to auarch\- and ci\"il war.'' l)\ilie treaty of Lune\ ilk'.

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Want of a middle class Moral el K'Cts of the pu Wic domains Dcjieudtmce and corruption of the poor Deljtors and . To com])are Florence with Athens is no liistoj'ic fiucy : but, allowing for dillerences of time and t'ountry, these memorable cities may justly be regarded 1 Jsismondi, //«/. Without de- ])i-i\iiig their alhes of their liberties, they forced upon t Jiem a perpi'tual league, otreiisive and defensive, by wliieli they were bound to follow the standards of the dominant city, in all its wars. cities was dealt by the emperor, Frederick Barbarossa. They fortified and entrenched theb' castles within the walled cities, as if they had been on the hill-side, surrounded themselves with armed retaiiu TS. In Florence, the people inclined to the CTuel[)hs, but the 1210. Further south, l^ologna, a rich and populous city, Avitli a learned university, and a cultivated society, had a de- mocratic constitulion, and was staunch to the Gnelphic part3\ The Italian nobles u'enerally belono'cd to the Imperial or Ghibeline faction : the people to the Guc)liic or Church party. ii Mcler the dominion of the Ghibeline nobles, aided by the emperor. The movement which he led was rehgious i4;-^ — ' })olitic rulers contrived to sustain her independence. (,'ortf'S, cf n V'ti^it pa,- dans ur.e I'l'juil)- li jiu\ ([u" luci'liiui livroit jiis([U*anx cntants a scs tioiu Tfaux. ie rule than tlie milder races dwolling in the' plains. In k^witzerland, as in Italy and other (■t)untries, the towns became rivals of the territorial counts and of the Church, defending themselves from 0[)])ression and aflbrdinir protection and cili/enshipto the vassals of the iieighbourino- chiefs.

In short, the sense in which I Ik.' word is used, in any case, can only be judged aj'iglit from the context. It- ' West-End " Avas called tlie ' Upper to^vn." in which dwell llu' families av Iio i)egan to call themselves palri- (dan. Tliey had recently seciu'ed the means of admisr^ion to the roll of l)iirghers : bnt were still dis- satisfied witli their disal)ilities. 377 \hslc were the lending examples, the ts ; and leagued together to resist it.

Again, it sometimes refers to the humbler citi- zciis of a State, as 0[posed to the ai'istoci'acy ; and, laslly, it is taken to duilne a pailicular type of deu Kj- cracy, such as the Athenian, the Florentine, or tlie Fj'ench deinocracy. In Geneva, as in otlier towns, tliere wa- a la]iiona()le quarler. tho ULiii established in the ci:\- 01 b SWITZERLAND. fop many generations, had been debarred from all jniblic -' ' ■ fuiietioi Ks.

() i Ja'saiue re[)r(_'ssi\ e jui'isdicliou.'' There was humour ' Si-! I'Vom i'eudal subjeciiou the Swiss gradutdly escaped, Growm or , . National unity was needed, to perfeet the uses of confederation. Uy the Borroniean Leaj^nie, or Golden Alliance, as it was soniethnes called, the seven Catholic cantons recoii'iiised each other as l)i-ethren, and bound tlieniselves to sup])ort the ancient faith, au'aiiist the Protestant cantons. The finances of the cantons were carefully and thriftily administered. Th(ir exclusi\-e power was sometimes resisted : but could not be overthrown.

the si^'noiia, \vas a.ulhoi'i^ed to ciiiiob K' them, and so suljjecl thcin ! Their ini^'ssant ^varfare \\-as training a brave and advent in'ous people to arms ; while the vigour of a noble race, and the •-jiirilual iulluence of the C'hurcli, were promoting the ci\ilisati(n of the people, and preparing ihem for the future assertion of libi M'ty. The difliculties of union were greatly increased by tlu^ licformation, which alienated the Catholic and Pro- testant cantons, and introduced divided courisds into the confederation. At till' close of the period of the Reforination, si;veii t of the cantons adhered to tlieir ancient Catholic faith : ' ha-'iu' P)erne, Jjasle, Zuricli and k^chairiiausen had ado[)1e(l tin reformed reli Li'ion ; and Appenzel and Glarusreco_i'nised both these ibrins of worship. Eoads and bridges througliout these mountain regions were skilfully constructed and vigilantly n'])aired. In Jjcrne, wlicre the n()l)les had always been in the R^^f"''- ascendant, the entire administration liad fdlen into the hands of a few families,- Avith Avhoni it liad become licreditary.

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Want of a middle class Moral el K'Cts of the pu Wic domains Dcjieudtmce and corruption of the poor Deljtors and . To com])are Florence with Athens is no liistoj'ic fiucy : but, allowing for dillerences of time and t'ountry, these memorable cities may justly be regarded 1 Jsismondi, //«/. Without de- ])i-i\iiig their alhes of their liberties, they forced upon t Jiem a perpi'tual league, otreiisive and defensive, by wliieli they were bound to follow the standards of the dominant city, in all its wars. cities was dealt by the emperor, Frederick Barbarossa. They fortified and entrenched theb' castles within the walled cities, as if they had been on the hill-side, surrounded themselves with armed retaiiu TS. In Florence, the people inclined to the CTuel[)hs, but the 1210. Further south, l^ologna, a rich and populous city, Avitli a learned university, and a cultivated society, had a de- mocratic constitulion, and was staunch to the Gnelphic part3\ The Italian nobles u'enerally belono'cd to the Imperial or Ghibeline faction : the people to the Guc]])liic or Church party. ii Mcler the dominion of the Ghibeline nobles, aided by the emperor. The movement which he led was rehgious i4;-^ — ' })olitic rulers contrived to sustain her independence. (,'ortf'S, cf n V'ti^it pa,- dans ur.e I'l'juil)- li jiu\ ([u" luci'liiui livroit jiis([U*anx cntants a scs tioiu Tfaux. ie rule than tlie milder races dwolling in the' plains. In k^witzerland, as in Italy and other (■t)untries, the towns became rivals of the territorial counts and of the Church, defending themselves from 0[)])ression and aflbrdinir protection and cili/enshipto the vassals of the iieighbourino- chiefs. In short, the sense in which I Ik.' word is used, in any case, can only be judged aj'iglit from the context. It- ' West-End " Avas called tlie ' Upper to^vn." in which dwell llu' families av Iio i)egan to call themselves palri- (dan. Tliey had recently seciu'ed the means of admisr^ion to the roll of l)iirghers : bnt were still dis- satisfied witli their disal)ilities. 377 \hslc were the lending examples, the ts ; and leagued together to resist it. Again, it sometimes refers to the humbler citi- zciis of a State, as 0[posed to the ai'istoci'acy ; and, laslly, it is taken to duilne a pailicular type of deu Kj- cracy, such as the Athenian, the Florentine, or tlie Fj'ench deinocracy. In Geneva, as in otlier towns, tliere wa- a la]iiona()le quarler. tho ULiii established in the ci:\- 01 b SWITZERLAND. fop many generations, had been debarred from all jniblic -' ' ■ fuiietioi Ks. () i Ja'saiue re[)r(_'ssi\ e jui'isdicliou.'' There was humour ' Si-! I'Vom i'eudal subjeciiou the Swiss gradutdly escaped, Growm or , . National unity was needed, to perfeet the uses of confederation. Uy the Borroniean Leaj^nie, or Golden Alliance, as it was soniethnes called, the seven Catholic cantons recoii'iiised each other as l)i-ethren, and bound tlieniselves to sup])ort the ancient faith, au'aiiist the Protestant cantons. The finances of the cantons were carefully and thriftily administered. Th(ir exclusi\-e power was sometimes resisted : but could not be overthrown. the si^'noiia, \vas a.ulhoi'i^ed to ciiiiob K' them, and so suljjecl thcin ! Their ini^'ssant ^varfare \\-as training a brave and advent in'ous people to arms ; while the vigour of a noble race, and the •-jiirilual iulluence of the C'hurcli, were promoting the ci\ilisati(n of the people, and preparing ihem for the future assertion of libi M'ty. The difliculties of union were greatly increased by tlu^ licformation, which alienated the Catholic and Pro- testant cantons, and introduced divided courisds into the confederation. At till' close of the period of the Reforination, si;veii t of the cantons adhered to tlieir ancient Catholic faith : ' ha-'iu' P)erne, Jjasle, Zuricli and k^chairiiausen had ado[)1e(l tin reformed reli Li'ion ; and Appenzel and Glarusreco_i'nised both these ibrins of worship. Eoads and bridges througliout these mountain regions were skilfully constructed and vigilantly n'])aired. In Jjcrne, wlicre the n()l)les had always been in the R^^f"''- ascendant, the entire administration liad fdlen into the hands of a few families,- Avith Avhoni it liad become licreditary.

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