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Two years later, the Schengen rules were incorporated into the Treaty of Amsterdam, and by 1999 European citizens were free to cross most intra-European borders without having to show their passports. In Galgóczi, Béla, Leschke, Janine, and Watt, Andrew. As of this writing, the Schengen Area encompasses 25 European countries, three of which are not members of the European Union. Dublin: European Foundation for the Improvement and Living Conditions. But how did such an area of free movement come about? Why did the sovereign states of Europe decide to give up one of the fundamental rights that defines a nation state — that of deciding who can cross its borders? This article provides a short overview of the history of the European free movement regime, and discusses how mobility in Europe has been promoted and utilized throughout the past 60 years, the EU enlargement into Central and Eastern Europe in 20 and its impact on intra-European migration, and the challenges facing governments in this new era of EU mobility. Scale, Diversity, and Determinants of Labour Migration in Europe.
Then in the 1950s, when Europe was beginning to recover from the devastation of World War II and experiencing a period of intense economic growth, labor mobility was again encouraged. Social Protection and the Challenges of Integration. Santacreu, Oscar, Baldoni, Emiliana, and Albert, Maria C. "Deciding to move: migration projects in an integrating Europe".
Because the lack of skilled workers was seen as a threat to the economy, freedom of movement of qualified industrial workers was included in the treaties founding the European Economic Community (EEC), the predecessor of the current European Union, in 1957.
Over 8 million work permits were issued to foreigners in Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, and West Germany (the original six members of the EEC) during the guest-worker period of 1958 to 1972. "Immigration and the variety of migrant integration regimes in the European Union".